Phenology of cocoa tree in a tropical moist forest
Cocoa crop in Colombia is characterized by low technified systems, with yields below 500 kg ha-1 year-1. Inappropriate application of cultural practices related to the lack of knowledge about cocoa phenology, as to the times and factors that induce flowering, shoot growth and fruit filling, is one of the principal causes. Phenology of cocoa clones CCN-51, ICS-95, FCH-25 y LK-40 was characterized in 4 years old trees, data were taken monthly for one year in a Tropical moist forest (T-mf), with unimodal rainfall regime, in the municipality of Chigorodó (Antioquia), coordinates 7° 36´ 52.5473´´ N, 76° 39´ 32.8495´´ W and 30 m above sea level, Mi Fortuna farm. The correlation (Spearman) between precipitation, water balance, number of hours with photosynthetically active radiation between 750 and 2200 µmol m-2 s-1 (PAR hours) and the maximum and minimum temperature with vegetative and reproductive variables was calculated. A significant correlation (p<0.001) between flowering and precipitation, water balance and PAR hours was found. Vegetative growth rate was controlled by fruit filling and harvest (source-sink ratio). The reproductive performance of LK-40 was superior to that of CCN-51 and similar to that of ICS-95 and FCH-25; clon CCN-51 showed the highest vegetative growth, but its reproductive performance was less than ICS-95 and LK-40.
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